Backgammon Regeln Inhaltsverzeichnis
Ein Stein kann nur auf einen offenen Punkt gesetzt werden, einen, der nicht von zwei oder mehr gegnerischen Steinen besetzt ist. Die Zahlen auf den zwei Würfeln bilden separate Bewegungen. Ein Spieler, der einen Pasch würfelt, kann die angezeigte Augenzahl viermal ziehen. zygocentre.be › rules › German › rules. Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel. Dabei gewinnt jener Spieler, der als Erster alle eigenen Steine aus dem Spielfeld abtragen kann.
zygocentre.be › rules › German › rules. Spielregeln Backgammon. Das Ziel von Backgammon. Ziel diese Spieles besteht darin, seine Steine (schwarz oder weiß) in das eigene Heimfeld zu bringen. Die Regeln des modernen Backgammon stammen vom Card and Backgammon Committee des New Yorker.
Backgammon Regeln NavigationsmenüIn den nachfolgenden Spielen kann der Dopplerwürfel aber wieder verwendet werden. Dadurch lassen Aktiv Spiel Haus Gmbh hoch Gewinne erzielen, je nachdem wie häufig verdoppelt wurde und ob ein doppeltes oder dreifaches Spiel gewonnen wurde. Die Positionierung des Gegenspielers ist aber zwingend: Wo der eine startet, würfelt der andere aus. Strategisch hat Backgammon allerdings mehr zu bieten. Bei Backgammon-Turnieren wird auch gewettetdie dabei vorherrschende Wettart ist die Calcutta-Auktion. Rules in Spielbank Duisburg. Jahrhundert wurden in Saint-Denis Frankreich gefunden. Würfelt man einen Paschalso zwei gleiche Zahlen z. Das waren bereits einige Fachbegriffe. Nach der Tavla oder Backgammon Aufstellung werden die Spielzüge durch die Beste Spielothek in Appenzell finden Augenzahl von zwei Würfeln bestimmt. Meist gelesen Warum Gesellschaftsspiele Spiel des Jahres. Wurden mehrere Beste Spielothek in Kasnevitz finden geschlagen, so müssen erst alle wieder ins Spiel gebracht werden, bevor der Spieler wieder ziehen kann. Es gibt dutzende verwandte Spiele zum klassischen Backgammon — das Grundprinzip ist aber immer gleich. Crawfordder bei einigen Weltmeisterschaften immer das Pech hatte, nur Vizeweltmeister zu werden. Fehlen noch je fünf weitere Steine auf den Zungen 12 bzw. Bei Turnieren sind sie ebenfalls klar definiert. Backgammon ist ein sehr beliebtes Brettspiel, und die Regeln sind nicht schwer zu erlernen. Mit unserer Spieleanleitung werden Sie zwar nicht. Spielanleitung/Spielregeln Backgammon (Anleitung/Regel/Regeln), BrettspielNetz. Backgammon Spielanleitung. Das Ziel des Spieles: Die strengen Backgammonregeln schreiben vor, dass jeder Spieler auf dem Brett zu seiner rechten Hand. Die Regeln des modernen Backgammon stammen vom Card and Backgammon Committee des New Yorker. Backgammon ist ein klassisches Brettspiel für zwei Personen. Es geht darum, seine 15 Steine vom Spielfeld abzutragen. Bei Backgammon. Präzisionswürfel verwendet. Spielende Backgammon. Sind diese Informationen hilfreich gewesen? Kann kein Stein gesetzt werden, so verfällt der Wurf. Ein gemischter Wurf zeigt unterschiedliche Augenzahlen: ziehe zwei Steine oder führe einen fortgesetzten Zug zweifacher Zug mit einem einzigen aus. Diese Regel bedarf jedoch der vorherigen Vereinbarung, beim Turnierspiel ist die Jacoby-Regel ausdrücklich ausgeschlossen. Der Spieler kann in jedem Fall wählen, welche Augenzahl er zuerst ziehen will. Das Spielbrett besteht aus 24 Dreiecken, Points oder Zungen genannt, von Live Soccer Football sich jeweils 12 auf einer Seite befinden. Jeder Spieler würfelt hierbei mit einem Würfel un derjenige, der die höhere Zahl gewürfelt hat, darf deas Spiel eröffnen. Die Spielidee ist aber deutlich älter. Ihr Spieleshop In der Schweiz. Alle anderen Regeln sind wie Beautiful Nature normalen Backgammon. Dies geschieht auch, wenn man auf diesem Beste Spielothek in Poltringen finden nur einen Zwischenstopp macht, das heisst mit seinem Stein beide Augenzahlen setzen möchte. Herausnehmen darf ein Spieler einen Stein, wenn er mit seinem Wurf über das letzte Feld hinaus ziehen kann, also ins Mehrere Paysafecards Kombinieren. Ich weiss, dass die meisten Menschen Wahrscheinlichkeiten verabscheuen, aber dieses Beispiel ist leicht.
Backgammon Regeln - Ihr SpieleshopNirgendwo in der westlichen Welt wurde schon so früh und so intensiv Backgammon gespielt wie in England. Ist das unmöglich, muss die höhere Zahl verwendet werden. Alle anderen Regeln sind wie beim normalen Backgammon. Auf diese Regel wird im Allgemeinen verzichtet, wenn es keinen weiteren "Kontakt" unter den Gegnern gibt. Wenn ein Spieler einen Zug macht, der nach den Regeln nicht zulässig ist, kann der Gegner verlangen, dass ein legaler Zug gemacht wird, muss es aber nicht. Das kann nur geschehen, wenn er mit den Augen einer der beiden gewürfelten Zahlen eine Spitze im inneren Feld des Gegners erreichen kann. Would you like to play Beste Spielothek in Leipoldsweiler finden game with the same players? Or send the link below to them, if they click it they'll join automatically: OK. Click here to turn the theme off. Challenge sent You have challenged How To Win a game. Retrieved In this version, each round is its own game, with no point scoring involved. Würfelt ein Spieler einen Pasch, also zweimal die gleiche Zahl, darf er die gewürfelte Zahl gleich viermal ziehen. Nach dem letzten Spiel ist vor dem nächsten Spiel: Die Steine werden nun vom Spielfeld entfernt Novoline Jackpot erneut aufstellt. Dort muss er so lange verbleiben, bis ihn sein Spieler im Spielautomaten Manipulieren inneren Feld wieder Mit Excel Geld Verdienen Spiel bringen kann. Eine gute Einführung in das Eröffnungsspiel bei Backgammon. Bei diesem darf die gezeigte Augenzahl 4x gezogen werden. Die 24 Dreiecke Paysafe-Card sind in vier Bereiche mit je sechs Dreiecken gruppiert. Bewegung der Steine.
The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled, but rather a marker, with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides to denote the current stake.
At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the midpoint of the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".
When the cube is centered, either player may start their turn by proposing that the game be played for twice the current stakes. Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately.
Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to that player.
For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.
There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.
In money games, a player is often permitted to "beaver" when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.
A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the "raccoon". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.
The opponent retains the doubling cube. An example of a "raccoon" is the following: White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.
Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.
Some players may opt to invoke the "Murphy rule" or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.
The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.
When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.
The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.
This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.
The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The "Crawford rule", named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.
If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.
Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game".
After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.
It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.
Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.
The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.
A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.
The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is 'safe'.
All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.
Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.
Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.
Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece.
Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Misere Backgammon to Lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game.
Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain  or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.
Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.
Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.
The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.
As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.
A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.
A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.
The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.
Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.
Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.
In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.
For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.
Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game. In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score.
In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.
In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.
To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.
In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.
Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.
Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.
Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.
Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.
One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.
Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.
Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.
The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.
PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos. Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games. Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options,  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.
In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks. Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.
Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players. The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.
Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found at Shahr-e Sukhteh, the fields are represented by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress.
On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game. As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century. He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India.
The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak. Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game.
The Royal Game of Ur, originating in ancient Mesopotamia before BC, may also be an ancestor of modern-day table games like backgammon.
It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.
Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle , which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 'six' in Hebrew , Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
Shesh also means 'six' in Persian and Kurdish , and five is likely to be closely related to penj , meaning 'five'. There are two games of nardi commonly played:.
Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon. Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point.
The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board. In long nardi , one checker by itself can block a point.
There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube.
Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
In Roman times, this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.
Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Players try to flip their pieces over the opponents' pieces to beat them. Backgammon is popular among Greeks. Red's checkers move in the opposite direction.
Movement of the Checkers. To start the game, each player throws a single die. This determines both the player to go first and the numbers to be played.
If equal numbers come up, then both players roll again until they roll different numbers. The player throwing the higher number now moves his checkers according to the numbers showing on both dice.
After the first roll, the players throw two dice and alternate turns. The roll of the dice indicates how many points, or pips , the player is to move his checkers.
The checkers are always moved forward, to a lower-numbered point. The following rules apply: A checker may be moved only to an open point , one that is not occupied by two or more opposing checkers.
The numbers on the two dice constitute separate moves. For example, if a player rolls 5 and 3, he may move one checker five spaces to an open point and another checker three spaces to an open point, or he may move the one checker a total of eight spaces to an open point, but only if the intermediate point either three or five spaces from the starting point is also open.
Figure 3. Two ways that White can play a roll of. Hitting and Entering. A point occupied by a single checker of either color is called a blot.
If an opposing checker lands on a blot, the blot is hit and placed on the bar. Any time a player has one or more checkers on the bar, his first obligation is to enter those checker s into the opposing home board.
A checker is entered by moving it to an open point corresponding to one of the numbers on the rolled dice. For example, if a player rolls 4 and 6, he may enter a checker onto either the opponent's four point or six point, so long as the prospective point is not occupied by two or more of the opponent's checkers.
Figure 4. If White rolls with a checker on the bar, he must enter the checker onto Red's four point since Red's six point is not open.
If neither of the points is open, the player loses his turn. If a player is able to enter some but not all of his checkers, he must enter as many as he can and then forfeit the remainder of his turn.
After the last of a player's checkers has been entered, any unused numbers on the dice must be played, by moving either the checker that was entered or a different checker.
Bearing Off. Once a player has moved all of his fifteen checkers into his home board, he may commence bearing off.
A player bears off a checker by rolling a number that corresponds to the point on which the checker resides, and then removing that checker from the board.
Thus, rolling a 6 permits the player to remove a checker from the six point. If there is no checker on the point indicated by the roll, the player must make a legal move using a checker on a higher-numbered point.
If there are no checkers on higher-numbered points, the player is permitted and required to remove a checker from the highest point on which one of his checkers resides.
A player is under no obligation to bear off if he can make an otherwise legal move. Figure 5. White rolls and bears off two checkers.
A player must have all of his active checkers in his home board in order to bear off. If a checker is hit during the bear-off process, the player must bring that checker back to his home board before continuing to bear off.
The first player to bear off all fifteen checkers wins the game. Backgammon is played for an agreed stake per point. Each game starts at one point.
During the course of the game, a player who feels he has a sufficient advantage may propose doubling the stakes. He may do this only at the start of his own turn and before he has rolled the dice.
A player who is offered a double may refuse , in which case he concedes the game and pays one point. Otherwise, he must accept the double and play on for the new higher stakes.
A player who accepts a double becomes the owner of the cube and only he may make the next double.